Criteria-referenced assessment measures an individual’s performance against specific, predefined criteria or standards, focusing on mastery of objectives. It offers customised feedback, aligns with learning goals, and is valuable in education and professional evaluations.
Norm-referenced assessment compares an individual’s performance to that of a larger group, establishing relative rankings. It does not emphasise mastery of specific objectives but rather how a person’s performance compares to peers. This approach is often used in standardised tests for relative comparisons in education and employment contexts.
Principles of Assessment:
First, assessment must be valid, meaning it accurately measures the intended learning outcomes. Second, it should be reliable, consistently producing similar results for the same competency. Third, assessment should be fair, ensuring equitable opportunities for all learners. Fourth is flexible; catering to diverse needs and contexts. Additionally, assessment should be transparent, with clear criteria and feedback.
Rules of Evidence:
The four rules of evidence, often applied in vocational education and training in Australia, are validity (the assessment measures what it’s intended to), sufficiency (adequate evidence), authenticity (evidence is genuine), and currency (assessment reflects current competence standards). These rules ensure accurate and reliable assessment outcomes.